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Значение слова и мотивация

НазваниеЗначение слова и мотивация
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Формат файлаppt
Имя файлаZnachenie_Slova_I_Motivatsia.ppt.ppt

Значение слова и мотивация

1. Возможные причины мотивированности значения слова
2. Причины, природа и результаты изменения значения
3. Полисемия
3.1. Диахронический и синхронический подход к полисемии
3.2. Историческая изменчивость семантической структуры слова
3.3. Полисемия и контекст. Типы контекста
4. Омонимия. Классификация омонимов

a) фонетическая мотивация;
b) морфологическая мотивация;
c) семантическая мотивация.

Фонетическая мотивация

To clatter
To roar
To murmur

Морфологическая мотивация

to rethink
Finger-ring – ring-finger
Fancy-ball dress – fancy-dress ball
Shop-window – to window-shop

Семантическая мотивация

Eyewash : 1) a lotion for the eyes;
2) something said or done to deceive a person so that he thinks what he sees is good though in fact it is not
Mouth 1) a part of human face,
2) the mouth of a river.

Причины изменения значения слова

1. Лингвистические
2. Экстралингвистические:
Hlaford = хранитель хлеба, далее –
повелитель, лорд

Лингвистические причины:

1. Эллипсис
To starve ← sterben (умереть) = to die
В OE глагол обычно использовался в сочетании с существительным hunger
В ME существительное при глаголе исчезло, а его значение перешло на глагол
To starve (ME) = to die of hunger

Дифференциация синонимов

OE land = 'solid part of earth's surface'
'the territory of a nation‘
ME country = ‘the territory of a nation’
ME land = 'solid part of earth's surface'

Фиксированный контекст

Token (native) -- Sign (borrowed),
love token, token of respect

Природа изменения значения

1. Сходство значений (метафора)
Mouth of the river, hands of the clock,
leg of the table, sternum of the ship
2. Смежность значений (метонимия)
Mother-tongue (native language)
Bench (the judges)
The house (all the public at the performance)

Результаты изменения значения

1. Ограничение значения
Hound = (OE) a dog of any breed
= (ME) a dog used in hunting
Girl = (OE) a child of either gender
= (ME) a female child

2. Расширение значения

Target = (OE) a round shield used in shooting
= (ME) anything that is aimed at

3. Улучшение значения

minister = ‘a servant’ → ‘a priest’ → 'a civil servant of higher rank, a person administering a department of state'.

4. Ухудшение значения

boor = 'a peasant' →'a clumsy or ill-bred fellow'


Лексико-семантический вариант – тождество звукобуквенной формы слова и одного из его значений

Семантический центр слова

та часть значения, которая остается неизменной для всех лексико-семантических вариантов

Контекст -

минимальная протяженность речи, детерминирующая индивидуальное значение слова

Лексический контекст

Heavy ---- load, table
---- rain, storm, snow, wind
---- industry, artillery, arms

Грамматический контекст

To make = 'to force, to induce'
to make + prn. + verb (to make smb. laugh, to make smb. work, to make smb. sit).
To make = 'to be­come'
to make + adj. + noun (to make a good wife, to make a good teacher).

Экстралингвистичекий контекст

The bill is large
John was looking for the glasses.
He gave her a ring


pit (n,) a large hole in the ground
pit (n2) the stone of a fruit
ball (n,) a round object used in games
ball (n2) a gathering of people for dancing
back (n) part of the body
back (adv) away from the front


piece (n) [pi:s| part separated from smth.
peace (n) |pi:s| a situation in which there is no war between countries or groups
knight (n) [nait] in the past, a European soldier from a high social class who wore a suit of armour ( = a metal suit) and rode a horse
night (n) [nait] the part of each 24-hour period when it is dark


bow (1) [bəu| a weapon made from a long curved piece of wood, used for shooting arrows
bow (2) |bau| a forward movement of the top part of the body, especially to show respect
lead (1) [li:d] the first position at a particular time during a race or competition
lead (2) [led] a soft heavy grey metal

Buzz, click, rustle, boom, quack.

Driver — someone who drives a vehicle, especially as his/her job; careless — not taking enough care; leg — the part of a piece of furniture such as a table or chair that supports it and raises it off the floor; horse — a piece of equipment shaped like a large box that is used in gymnastics; singlehood — the state of being single rather than married; wall — emotions or behaviour that prevent people from feeling close to each other; hand-made — made by hand, not machine; piggish — selfish;

blue-eyed — having blue eyes; sound bite — a short comment by a politician or another famous person that is taken from a longer conversation or speech and broadcast alone because it is especially interesting or effective; leaflet — a small, often folded piece of printed paper, often advertising something, usually given free to people; streamlet — a small stream (a natural flow of water).

1) the foot of a person — the foot of a mountain; 2) jean (heavy twilled cotton cloth, esp. denim) — jeans (trousers made of denim); 3) Matisse (proper name) — a Mattisse (a painting); 4) the wing of a bird — the wing of a building; 5) the key to a door — the key to a mystery; 6) copper (metal) — copper (coin);

7) the heart of a man — the heart of a city; 8) crown (a circular ornamental headdress worn by a monarch) — crown (monarchy); 9) a whip (a lash used to urge horses on) — a whip (an official in the British Parliament to see that members are present at debates); 10) China (a country) — china (dishes made of porcelain

1) camp: 'a place where troops are lodged in tents' — 'a place where people live in tents or hunts'; 2) girl: 'a small child of either sex' — 'a small child of the female sex'; 3) bird: 'a young bird' — 'a creature with wings and feathers which can usually fly in the air'; 4) arrive: 'reach the shore after a voyage' — 'reach a place at the end of a journey or a stage in a journey'; 5) deer: 'any quadruped' — 'a hoofed grazing or browsing animal, with branched bony antlers that are shed annually and typically borne only by the male';

6) rug: 'rough woolen stuff — 'a small carpet'; 7) barn: 'a place for keeping barley' — 'a large farm building used for storing grain, hay, or straw or for housing livestock'; 8) glide: 'to move gently and smoothly' — 'fly with no engine'; 9) room: 'space' — 'a part or division of a building enclosed by walls, floor, and ceiling'; 10) fly: 'move with wings' — 'to move through the air or in the outer space'; 11) artist: 'a master of the liberal arts' — 'a person who produces paintings or drawings as a profession or hobby';

12) champion: "a fighting man' — 'a person who has defeated or surpassed all rivals in a competition, especially a sporting contest'; 13) campaign: 'army's operations in the field' — 'a connected set of actions intended to obtain a particular result, in military operations, in politics and business'.

1) cunning: 'possessing erudition or skill' — 'clever in deceiving'; 2) knight: 'manservant' — 'noble courageous man'; 3) fond: 'foolish, infatuated' — 'loving, affectionate'; A) gang: 'a group of people going together' — 'an organized group of criminals'; 5) marshal: 'manservant attending horses' — 'an officer of the highest rank in the armed forces'; 6) coarse: 'ordinary, common' — 'rude or vulgar';

1. The book tries to give simple explanations of some very complex scientific ideas. 2. Sally likes clothes that are simple but elegant. 3. The simple fact is that he wants a divorce. 4. Archaeologists found several simple tools at the site. A knife is a simple tool. 5. Her grandparents were simple people who never had much money. I'm just a simple farmer. 6. You may be joking but she's simple enough to believe you. 7. I'm afraid old Jack is a bit simple.

Made (adj) — maid (n); row (n) — row (n);
week (n) — weak (adj); seal (n) — seal (n);
tear (v) — tear (n); bread (n) — bred (adj);
band (n) — band (n); sum (n) — some (pron);
fall (n) — fall (v); wind (n) — wind (v);
base (n) — base (v); desert (v) — desert (n);
hare (n) — hair (n); sewer (n) — sewer (n)
corn (n) — corn (n).

1. Out of... out of mind (cite, site, sight).
2. Do not look a gift ... in the mouth (horse, hoarse).
3. It never rains, but it... (pours, paws).
4. No ... without sweat (sweet, suite).
5. Do not run with the ... and hunt with the hounds (hair, hare).
6. All is ... in love and war (fare, fair).
7. Fame is chiefly a matter of... at the right moment (die, dye).

7) minister, 'a servant' — 'a head of a government department'; 8) enthusiasm: 'a prophetic or poetic frenzy ' — 'intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval'; 9) violent: 'having a marked or powerful effect' — 'using or involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something'; 10) gossip: 'a godparent, a person related to one in God' — 'the one who talks scandal; tells slanderous stories about other people'.

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